He came up with it after years of studying steroid users in Boston-area gyms and comparing them not just to non-steroid users in the same gyms, but also to bodybuilders from different eras. For a 1995 study, Pope and his coauthors estimated the FFMIs of Mr. America winners from 1939 to 1959, before steroids were readily available. The group includes future B-movie star Steve Reeves, whose physique was so iconic that he was name-checked in The Rocky Horror Picture Show . The average FFMI was . (One of the highest was George Eiferman, Mr. America 1948, with a FFMI. His upper body was later the model for George of the Jungle, a 1960s cartoon character.) Even today, with all we’ve learned about training and nutrition, an FFMI in the mid 20s is still considered the ceiling for natural bodybuilders. Anything above 26 or 27 is suspect.
When parents get together in the stands of their teens' games, they talk. Normally you've known the other parents for a long time as kids who play high school sports start at a young age and you've sat with these people many times before. But even if you are a new set of parents, the fact that you both have players on the same team tends to make you immediate acquaintances, if not friends. If your teen's teammates are taking 'supplements', you will hear about it. There will be a mom asking questions to other parents or a nod and a wink between teammates that will send up a red flag to you. Keeping your eyes and ears open when being social with other parents during your teen's sports season is a great way to find out if steroid use is happening.