The BALCO scandal also brought fines and suspensions for a handful of professional football players: Chris Cooper (1977 – ), Barrett Robbins (1973 – ), and Dana Stubblefield (1970 – ). Elliot Almond and Peter Carey note in "Bonds, Marion Jones Alleged to Have Received Steroids" (Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Service, April 25, 2004) that Bill Romanowski (1966 – ) was reported by the San Jose Mercury News to have been implicated by Conte, but Romanowski retired before the National Football League (NFL) could take any formal action against him. Romanowski later admitted to having used steroids during his playing career.
The poster boy for steroid-fueled home run dominance, Barry Bonds would lose about 105 home runs under a 20 percent discount and nearly 174 if we dock users by 33 percent. The latter penalty would still land him in the top six for career dingers, but he’d also sit a distant 167 home runs behind Hank Aaron for the all-time lead. Also, Alex Rodriguez would go from fourth to 11th on the lifetime list; the quartet of Sammy Sosa, Rafael Palmeiro, Manny Ramirez and Gary Sheffield would drop by roughly 30 slots apiece; and Juan Gonzalez would fall by 73 spots.
There have been several studies which have demonstrated the effects of steroid and steroid derivatives on the body ( Table 1 ) [ 1 , 13 , 14 ]. Bhasin et al. performed a prospective, placebo controlled study evaluating the effects of supraphysiologic levels testosterone enanthate (TE) on muscle mass over a 10-week period [ 15 ]. The authors concluded that patients with supraphysiologic levels of TE had a significantly greater increase in their lean muscle mass as well as a more significant increase in size of their legs and triceps, and a more significant increase in the weight they could bench press and squat compared to the control group. However, despite the benefits steroids provide in muscle mass and strength, multiple studies have demonstrated that there are innumerable side effects associated with these drugs including cardiovascular disease, testicular atrophy, sudden cardiac death, liver disease and mood alterations [ 16 - 19 ].