Metabolism of steroid hormones ppt

From the endocytotic vesicles, cholesterol is transferred to the endoplasmic reticulum by the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Acylation by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) yields a cholesterol ester, which is loaded into a nascent chylomicron together with triacylglycerol. After the chylomicrons have been released from the intestinal cells and reached the circulation via the lymphatics, most of their triacylglycerol is depleted by capillary lipoprotein lipase. The cholesterol stays behind in the chylomicron remnants, which are taken up and utilized in the liver (see slide ).

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While the human body manufactures an endogenous Testosterone level in the range of 70mg/week, the Testosterone dosage required for physique and performance enhancement must sit well above that, with a minimum being in the range of 300 – 500mg per week for beginners, for example. Intermediate and/or experienced anabolic steroid users can venture even higher than that. In addition to the higher bodybuilding dosage, the injections must be administered much more frequently. While TRT patients can ‘get by’ with a single 250mg injection of Testosterone Enanthate once per week (or even once every two weeks as is commonly applied clinically), an athlete or bodybuilder would have to administer 250mg of Testosterone Enanthate twice per week (for a total of 500mg) in order to experience a steady onset of performance and physique enhancing benefits. This is very necessary due to a constant steady peak blood plasma level of the anabolic steroid that is necessary for constant biological action within muscle tissue in the body. Testosterone Enanthate, as mentioned earlier in this article, exhibits a half-life of 7 – 10 days, but although its half-life is 7 – 10 days, sharp declines in blood plasma levels begin to occur several days before the end of the half-life period. When performance and physique enhancement is desired, the administration of doses must occur more frequently in order to keep blood plasma levels elevated as best as possible. For medical purposes such as TRT, sharp spikes and peaks and valleys in blood plasma levels can be afforded (although it is still not optimal), as the patient is simply utilizing Testosterone to obtain normal physiological levels, and is therefore not particularly concerned with dramatic performance or physique changes on a weekly basis.

The early steps in the biosynthesis of steroids of both plants and animals are the same, except that in plants lanosterol is replaced by the related compound cycloartenol, which contains a three-membered ring (C9, C10, C19) in lieu of the nuclear double bond of lanosterol. The side chains of the phytosterols, such as stigmasterol, and of the sterol ergosterol of yeasts and other fungi contain extra carbon atoms that are incorporated in reactions involving S -adenosylmethionine, which donates methyl groups in numerous biological processes. Although most plant tissues contain only traces of cholesterol, this sterol is the biogenetic precursor of such important plant steroids as the sapogenins , glycosides , and alkaloids . Because pregnane derivatives are intermediates in some of these transformations, plants and animals appear to have important features of steroid metabolism in common.

Metabolism of steroid hormones ppt

metabolism of steroid hormones ppt

The early steps in the biosynthesis of steroids of both plants and animals are the same, except that in plants lanosterol is replaced by the related compound cycloartenol, which contains a three-membered ring (C9, C10, C19) in lieu of the nuclear double bond of lanosterol. The side chains of the phytosterols, such as stigmasterol, and of the sterol ergosterol of yeasts and other fungi contain extra carbon atoms that are incorporated in reactions involving S -adenosylmethionine, which donates methyl groups in numerous biological processes. Although most plant tissues contain only traces of cholesterol, this sterol is the biogenetic precursor of such important plant steroids as the sapogenins , glycosides , and alkaloids . Because pregnane derivatives are intermediates in some of these transformations, plants and animals appear to have important features of steroid metabolism in common.

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