Doping in “capitalistic” countries in general is organized in small clandestine and conspiratory circles, usually around a specific coach or sports doctor who also serves as a “guru” providing the justifying philosophy (see references below). The government does not play a direct role in these treatments, which in most countries represent violations of drug laws. In some countries, however, a supportive role of the government cannot be overlooked (for reviews on the pattern of doping drug distribution and organization in Western countries see, ., ( 2 )( 52 )( 53 )( 54 )( 55 )( 56 )( 57 )( 58 )( 59 )( 61 )( 63 )). In West Germany, the modes of distribution and administration of doping drugs became most obvious when they were investigated by prosecutors in legal proceedings, who uncovered a bizarre scenario of drug connections (for details see also ( 11 )). The following examples illustrate some of the contemporary German scenario of elite sports:
“Often unbeknownst to them, East German athletes were frequently given anabolic steroids, sex and growth hormones and extreme doses of pain medication,” Oliver Frisch of Zeit Online wrote. “For many of those affected, severe health consequences have been the result, some of which are only now making themselves felt. They include heart disease, kidney complications, skin troubles and problems with bones and sex organs. Some suffer from depression and eating disorders or are traumatized. But the issue is hardly ever spoken about: The victims are reticent and those responsible remain silent.”
Twenty-two countries and about 2,000 athletes participated. The opening ceremony and the majority of events were held at Shepherd’s Bush Stadium. New events included diving , motorboating, indoor tennis, and field hockey . The track-and-field events were marked by bickering between American athletes and British officials. The 400-metre final was nullified by officials who disqualified the apparent winner, American John Carpenter , for deliberately impeding the path of Wyndham Halswelle of Great Britain. A new race was ordered, but the other qualifiers, both American, refused to run. Halswelle then won the gold in the only walkover in Olympic history. See also Sidebar: Dorando Pietri: Falling at the Finish . Henry Taylor of Great Britain starred in the swimming events, winning three gold medals.